available in this Section
ULM Safety Manual - Table of Contents
JOB SAFETY ANALYSIS
A Job Safety Analysis should be performed on all jobs that have resulted
in a trend, death, or a change in a job procedures or new equipment. JSA's
are synonymous with many agencies' Standard Operating Procedures or
and apply primarily to hazardous operations or potentially hazardous operations.
JSA is a procedure used to review work methods and uncover hazards that
might result in incidents/accidents. The job safety analysis will provide
a framework for incident/accident analysis.
WHEN TO PERFORM A JOB SAFETY ANALYSIS:
A job safety analysis should be performed on all jobs that have resulted
in a trend, death, or a change in a job procedure or equipment.
Step 1: Select the Job
In selecting jobs to be analyzed and in establishing the order of analysis,
the following factors should be considered. They are listed in order of
Production of injuries Jobs that have produced medical treatment
or disabling injury during the past three years should be analyzed.
Frequence of Accidents Jobs that repeatedly produce accidents should
be analyzed. The greater the number of accidents associated with the job,
the greater its priority for a job safety analysis. Subsequent injuries
indicate that preventive action taken prior to their occurrence was not
Potential Severity Some jobs may not have a history of accidents
but may have the potential for severe injury or property damage. The greater
the potential severity, the greater its priority for a job safety analysis.
New Jobs or a Change in a Job New operations created by changes
in equipment or processes obviously have no history of accidents, but their
accident potential should be fully appreciated. A job safety analysis should
be made on every new job created. Analysis should not be delayed until
an accident or a near miss occurs.
Step 2: Perform the Analysis
Death Any accident that caused the death of an employee MUST have
a job safety analysis made as part of the investigation.
The supervisor or the safety officer responsible for the task should
perform the job safety analysis using the Job Safety Analysis
Worksheet (JSA-1-00). The supervisor or safety officer should conduct
the job safety analysis with the help of employees who regularly perform
the task. The job being analyzed should be broken down into a sequence
of steps that describe the process in detail. Avoid these two common errors:
1. Making the breakdown too detailed so that an unnecessarily large number
of steps result; or 2. Making the job breakdown so general that the basic
steps are not distinguishable. As a rule, the job safety analysis should
contain less than 12 steps. If more steps are needed, the job should be
broken into separate tasks.
Job safety analysis involve the following steps:
Selecting a qualified person to perform the analysis.
Briefing the employee demonstrating the task on the purpose of the analysis.
Observing the performance of the job and breaking it into basic steps.
Recording and describing each step in the breakdown.
Select an experienced, capable, and cooperative person who is willing to
share ideas. They should be familiar with the purpose and method of a job
safety analysis. Sometimes it is difficult for someone who is intimately
familiar with a job to describe it in detail; therefore, reviewing a completed
job safety analysis before conducting one will help illustrate the terminology
and procedure to be followed.
Reviewing the breakdown and description with the person who performed the
Review the breakdown and analysis with the person who performed the
job to ensure agreement of the sequence and description of the steps. Variations
of routine procedures should be analyzed also.
The wording for each step should begin with an action word such as "remove",
"open", or "lift".
Step 3: Identify Hazards
Hazards associated with each step are identified. To ensure a thorough
analysis, answer the following questions about each step of the operation:
Is there a danger of striking against, being struck by, or otherwise making
injurious contact with an object?
Can the employee be caught in, by or between the objects?
Is there a potential for a slip or trip? Can someone fall on the same level
or to another?
Using the Job Safety Analysis (JSA-1-00), document
hazards associated with each step. Check with the employee who performed
the job and others experienced in performing the job for additional ideas.
A reliable list will be developed through observation and discussion.
Can an employee strain themselves by pushing, pulling, lifting, bending
Step 4: Develop Solutions
The final step in job safety analysis is to develop a safe, efficient
job procedure to prevent accidents. The principal solutions for minimizing
hazards that are identified in the analysis are as follows:
Find a new way to do the job. To find an entirely new way to perform
a task, determine the goal of the operation and analyze the various ways
of reaching this goal. Select the safest method. Consider work saving tools
Change the physical conditions that create the hazard If a new way
to perform the job cannot be developed, change the physical conditions
such as tools, materials, equipment, layout, location) to eliminate or
control the hazard.
Change the work procedure to eliminate the hazard. Investigate changes
in the job procedure that would enable employees to perform the task without
being exposed to the hazard.
If a job or process is changed dramatically, it should be discussed with
all personnel involved to determine the possible consequences of the changes.
Such discussions check the accuracy of the job safety analysis and involve
personnel in efforts to reduce job hazards.
Reduce the frequence of its performance. Often a repair of service
job has to be repeated frequently because of another condition that needs
correction. This is particular true in maintenance and material handling.
To reduce the frequence of a repetitive job, eliminate the condition or
practice that results in excessive repairs or service. If the condition
cannot be eliminated, attempt to minimize the effect of the condition.
Reducing the number of times a job is performed contributes to safer operations
only because the frequency of exposure to the hazard is reduced. It is
preferable to eliminate hazards and prevent exposure by changing physical
conditions or revising the job procedure or both. In developing solutions,
general precautions such as "be alert", "use caution", or "be careful"
are useless. Solutions should precisely state what to do and how
to do it. For example, "make certain the wrench does not slip or cause
loss of balance" does not tell how to prevent the wrench from slipping.
A good recommendation explains both "what" and "how". For example: "set
wrench jaws securely on the bolt. Test its grip by exerting slight pressure
on it. Brace yourself against something immovable, or take a solid stance
with feet wide apart before exerting slow steady pressure". This recommendation
reduces the possibility of a loss of balance if the wrench slips.
Step 5: Conduct Follow-up Analysis
No less than once per month, each supervisor should observe employees
as they perform at least one job for which a job safety analysis has been
developed. The purpose of these observations is to determine whether or
not the employees are doing the jobs in accordance with the safety procedures
developed. The supervisor should review the job safety analysis before
doing the follow-up review to reinforce the proper procedures that are
to be follows.
Use of the Job Safety Analysis
The job safety analysis provides a learning opportunity for the supervisor
and employee. Copies of the job safety analysis should be distributed to
all employees who perform that job. The supervisors should explain the
analysis to the employees and, if necessary, provide additional training.
New employees or employees asked to perform new tasks must be trained
to use the safe and efficient procedures developed in the job safety analysis.
The new employee should be taught the correct method to perform a task
before dangerous habits develop, to recognize the hazard associated with
each job step, and to use the necessary precautions to avoid injury or
Jobs that are performed infrequently require additional effort to minimize
accident potential. Pre-job instruction addressing the points listed on
the job safety analysis will serve as a refresher to employees who may
have forgotten some of the hazards in performing the task and the proper
procedure to be used to avoid these hazards.
Finally, the job safety analysis is an incident/accident investigation
tool. When incidents/accidents occur involving a job for which a job safety
analysis has been performed, the analysis should be reviewed to determine
if proper procedures were followed or if the procedures should be revised.
Job safety analysis forms should be maintained in a notebook in the
department creating the documents and should be readily accessible to employees.
An index naming the task, date the job safety analysis was completed, and
date the analysis was revised should be maintained in the front of each
Forms available for download in this Section:
||File types available
|(JSA) Job Safety Analysis Worksheet (Form JSA-1-00)
ULM Safety Manual - Table of Contents