Review for Exam One, Art 205
Graphic Design, ULM - Mr. Fassett 

Art is a form of expression giving order to a human's reaction to his/her environment. 

The components of a work of art - subject, form, content.

Form is all the perceivable characteristics of a work, 
and their arrangement.

Design is activity by or for a definite reason.

Design is structure, order, organization.

Design elements - physical realities. line, shape, color, value, texture.

Design principles - guidelines to establish form unity: harmony, variety, dominance, balance, movement, proportion, economy.

The principle of harmony is used to promote and maintain a sense of unity among the elements of the design. Unity in a visual work can be achieved by "proximity," "repetition," or "continuation." Elements that share similarities can also produce a sense of rhythm.

The principle of variety is used to promote and maintain interest in a design. This interest is accomplished through contrast or differences of elements and/or through the use of elaboration or increased complexity of certain elements. 

Art has the potential to guide the people and values of the culture that has produced it. 
Art can instruct, remind, and persuade. Art is the sharing of experience, sensation, and reaction through aesthetically coherent composition. Art communicates and extends experience, gives form to feelings, searches for and demonstrates reality.

COMMUNICATION = message conveyance

A model of the communication process.

   SENDER - encode - MEDIUM - decode -  RECEIVER 
                              - FEEDBACK LOOP to sender

Sender must encode the message into the specific medium (vehicle for communication), the receiver must decode the message. In the best situation the sender will realize that the message has been received.

Commonality of reference frame

Perception/reality, very often "the medium is the message."
Essentials prior to communication: Audience analysis/Determine objective.

Applied art is meant to accomplish a purpose beyond the personal esthetic statement of its creator. The creative production as well as the final appearance of fine art and applied art are often identical. The difference is in the intent. The fine artist must only satisfy "self" whereas the applied artist must respond to the needs of an external audience. The applied artist may be expected to move millions of people to read a sign, understand a concept or follow a map.

The graphic designer becomes a partner in the communication of a client's ideas, concepts, and information. The designer's role is to effectively and efficiently enhance, clarify, and expedite the visual display of information.

Graphic designers use type, illustration, photography, and symbols to achieve visual solutions that are functional, elegant, simple, and economical to get most people in a target group to respond positively to a specific message.

A focal point (area of emphasis or dominance in a visual work) can be achieved by "contrast," "isolation," or "placement."

Abstraction is the simplification, distortion, exaggeration, or rearrangement of natural objects to meet the needs of artistic organization or expression.

Figurative, representational, non-representational (non-objective).

The design process - brainstorming - Thumbnails, roughs, comps. Thumbnails (generate ideas, establish a visual record) generally seen only by the artist and colleagues, Roughs (provide a somewhat clearer focus of potential solutions) shown to the client to determine viability of direction. Comps (comprehensives), when necessary, are to sell the client on the finished design solution. Comps can also be used by production staff to match color, style, placement, etc.) 

Form follows function - The appearance or structure is determined by the performance objective. Establish function first, then create form to fulfill it.

ART CRITICISM - Inventory, formal analysis, interpretation, judgement.
A quick sequence of critique for design: execution, correct information, parameters followed, appropriate to communication task, well designed, creative.

CREATIVITY: A unique response to stimulus

The creative process

  1. EXPOSURE: initial stimulus, awareness of a problem or need, exposure to parameters and limitations, exposure to previous solutions, possibly some preparation of media.
  2. INCUBATION: subconscious assimilation of stimuli and past experiences.
  3. ILLUMINATION: conscious awareness of possible solution or direction toward a solution.
  4. EXECUTION: verification of possible solution. Translation from idea to reality.
Creative people:
  • record and report experience in a unique manner.
  • are curious and discerning.
  • have a fluency of ideas, generalize ideas, elaborate on ideas.
  • are not afraid of the unknown.
  • would rather suffer a result of commission rather than omission.
  • resist premature closure.
  • TYPOGRAPHY is the symbols of language uniformly rendered in a composition. Hand wrought lettering is not uniform.Designers use type to attract attention, set a mood, convey information.

    A font is a collection of all characters of a specific type style (oldstyle roman, transitional roman, modern roman, slab serif, sans serif, etc.). 

    Points (72 points = 1 inch)
    picas (12 points = 1 pica), (6 picas = 1 inch)
    em (a square space the size of the type), 

    Type size (measured from ascender to descender in points), face (light, medium, bold, italic, expanded, condensed), case (upper, lower, small caps), x-height, baseline, format (justified, centered, flush left, flush right), leading (10/12, 9/10, set solid), text/display, run-around.

    The nature of a mark, such as a line or a letterform is dependent on: inter-action of tool and surface, response of the surface to the tool or pigment, speed or technique of execution.

    Illusions of space Overlap, transparency, shadow, shading (chiaroscuro), size, position on picture plane, atmospheric perspective/linear perspective.

    Design Terms: plastic/decorative, picture plane/picture frame, figure/ground - positive/negative - biomorphic/geometric - hard edge/soft edge, Value Key (over-all tonality in light and dark), symmetrical balance/asymmetrical balance, expressive directional quality, pencil grades (2B HB 3B 4H 2H).

    Technical pen, ruler measurements, dividing space, rubber cement, resize art, reproduction percentages, proportion scale. Mat artwork for protection, cropping, and presentation.