Review for Exam One, Art 206
Graphic Design, ULM - Mr. Fassett
Applied art is meant to accomplish a purpose beyond the personal esthetic statement of its creator. The creative production as well as the final appearance of fine art and applied art are often identical. The difference is in the intent.
The fine artist must only satisfy "self" whereas the applied artist must respond to the needs of an external audience. The applied artist may be expected to move millions of people to read a sign, understand a concept or follow a map.
The graphic designer becomes a partner in the communication of a client's ideas, concepts, and information. The designer's role is to effectively and efficiently enhance, clarify, and expedite the visual display of information.
Graphic designers use type, illustration, photography, and symbols to achieve visual solutions that are functional, elegant, simple, and economical to get most people in a target group to respond positively to a specific message.
The principle of harmony is used to promote and maintain a sense of unity among the elements of the design.Unity in a visual work can be achieved by "proximity," "repetition," or "continuation."Elements that share similarities can also produce a sense of rhythm.
The principle of variety is used to promote and maintain interest in a design. This interest is accomplished through contrast or differences of elements and/or through the use of elaboration or increased complexity of certain elements. Art has the potential to guide the people and values of the culture that has produced it. Art can instruct, remind, and persuade. Art is the sharing of experience, sensation, and reaction through aesthetically coherent composition. Art communicates and extends experience, gives form to feelings, searches for and demonstrates reality.
COMMUNICATION = message conveyance
A model of the communication process.
SENDER - encode - MEDIUM - decode - RECEIVER
Sender must encode the message into the specific medium (vehicle for communication), the receiver must decode the message. In the best situation the sender will realize that the message has been received.A focal point (area of emphasis or dominance in a visual work) can be achieved by "contrast," "isolation," or "placement."
Abstraction is the simplification, distortion, exaggeration, or rearrangement of natural objects to meet the needs of artistic organization or expression.
Figurative, representational, non-representational (non-objective).
The design process - brainstorming - Thumbnails, roughs, comps. Thumbnails (generate ideas, establish a visual record) generally seen only by the artist and colleagues, Roughs (provide a somewhat clearer focus of potential solutions) shown to the client to determine viability of direction. Comps (comprehensives), when necessary, are to sell the client on the finished design solution. Comps can also be used by production staff to match color, style, placement, etc.)
Form follows function - The appearance or structure is determined by the performance objective. Establish function first, then create form to fulfill it.
ART CRITICISM - Inventory, formal analysis, interpretation, judgement.A quick sequence of critique for design: execution, correct information, parameters followed, appropriate to communication task, well designed, creative.
CREATIVITY: A unique response to stimulus
The creative process
A well chosen type brings an appropriate mood or emotive quality to the communication task as well as acting as a vehicle for conveying clear and legible information.
Type size (measured from ascender to descender in points), face (light, medium, bold, italic, expanded, condensed), case (upper, lower, small caps), x-height, baseline, format (justified, centered, flush left, flush right), leading (10/12, 9/10, set solid), text/display, run-around.
The nature of a mark, such as a line or a letterform is dependent on: inter-action of tool and surface, response of the surface to the tool or pigment, speed or technique of execution.
Advantages of type as a visual solution
Short Lines require inordinate hyphenation creating legibility problems and word spacing problems that are aesthetically displeasing.More than 2 adjacent hyphenated lines is poor typography.
Hyphenation:If a word is too long to fit specified line length, it can be broken between syllables with a hyphen and continued on the next line.
Long Lines require more fixation points to view the contents of a line and create opportunity for error when returning to the start of the next line.
Lists and Tables
line spacing and x-height
Too much word spacing can affect visual tracking on the line. Too little word spacing distort individual word form recognition and even join words to create unintended words.
Proofread and markup using marks such as:
Separating a title from body text.
ROM, read only memory, can only be read from, and not written to. Built in ROM resides in a chip on the motherboard. It is permanently built in and cannot be changed. CD ROM disks are also read only.
Save and Save as . . .
The Save As . . . command allows you to select the name and location of a file before it is saved. Many applications will also let you save a document in another format
Connect to the desireed server. Enter user id and password, if required. Select the appropriate shared folder, it should then appear on the desk top.
Avoid opening files across a network
All page make-up applications (QuarkXPress, InDesign) allow for style tagging of paragraphs or selected charcters which can be applied to selected paragraphs. New type specifications can be globally applied to all tagged items by changing style sheet parameters. Though this may seem a redundant procedure for single page layouts such as ad copy, it is a very powerful necessity in the world of publishing. If you change your mind one time on a newsletter with two pages, you will see the value of style sheets.